What are the advantages and disadvantages of power batteries and energy storage batteries?

Energy storage mainly refers to the storage of electric energy. Energy storage is also a term in petroleum reservoirs, representing the reservoir's ability to store oil and gas. Energy storage itself is not a new technology, but from the industrial point of view it is just emerging, is in the initial stage.
So far, China has not reached the same level as the United States and Japan regarding energy storage as an independent industry and promulgated special support policies. Especially in the absence of a payment mechanism for energy storage, the commercialization model of energy storage industry has not yet taken shape.
Lead-acid batteries are generally used in high-power battery storage occasions. They are mainly used for the storage of surplus energy in emergency power supply, battery cars and power plants. Rechargeable dry batteries, such as nickel-hydrogen batteries and lithium-ion batteries, can also be used for low power applications. This article is of great help to learn about the advantages and disadvantages of nine kinds of battery energy storage.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Battery Energy Storage (Analysis of Nine Energy Storage Batteries)

I.Lead-acid batteries


Main advantages:
1. Raw materials are readily available and relatively cheap.
2. High rate discharge performance is good.
3. It has good temperature performance and can work in the environment of -40~60 ~C.
4. It is suitable for floating charging with a long service life and no memory effect.
5. Waste batteries are easy to recycle, which is conducive to environmental protection.
Main shortcomings:
1. Low specific energy, generally 30-40 Wh/kg;
2. The service life of Cd/Ni battery is less than that of Cd/Ni battery.
3. The manufacturing process might easily cause environmental pollution and must be equipped with three waste treatment equipment.

II. Nickel-hydrogen batteries


Main advantages:
1. Compared with lead-acid batteries, the energy density of lead-acid batteries has been greatly increased, with the weight energy density of 65Wh/kg and the volume energy density of lead-acid batteries increased by 200Wh/L.
2. High power density, high current charge and discharge;
3. Good discharge characteristics at low temperature.
4. Cyclic life (up to 1000 cycles);
5. Environmental protection and pollution-free;
6. Technical comparison of lithium-ion batteries.
Main shortcomings:
1. The normal working temperature range is - 15-40 C, and the high-temperature performance is poor.
2. Low working voltage, working voltage range 1.0-1.4V;
3. The price is higher than that of lead-acid batteries and nickel-hydrogen batteries, but the performance is worse than that of lithium-ion batteries.

III.Lithium-ion batteries


Main advantages:
1. High specific energy;
2. High voltage platform;
3. Good cycle performance;
4. No memory effect;
5. Environmentally friendly and pollution-free. At present, it is one of the best potential electric vehicle power batteries.

Ⅳ. Supercapacitor


Main advantages:
1. High power density;
2. Short charging time.
Main shortcomings:
Low energy density, only 1-10Wh/kg, supercapacitor range is too short to be the mainstream power supply of electric vehicles.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Battery Energy Storage (Analysis of Nine Energy Storage Batteries)

Ⅴ.Fuel Cells
Main advantages:
1. High specific energy, long driving mileage;
2. High power density, high current charge and discharge;
3. Environmental protection, no pollution.
Main shortcomings:
1. The system is complex and the technology maturity is poor.
2. The construction of hydrogen supply system is lagging behind.
3. There are high requirements for sulfur dioxide in the air. Due to the serious air pollution in China, the life of fuel cell vehicles in China is relatively short.

Ⅵ.Sodium sulfur batteries
1. High specific energy (theoretical 760 wh/kg; actual 390 wh/kg);
2. High power (discharge current density can reach 200-300 mA/cm2);
3. Fast charging speed (full 30 minutes);
4. Long life (15 years; or 2500-4500 times);
5. No pollution and recoverable (Na, S recovery rate is nearly 100%); 6. No self-discharge, high energy conversion rate;
1. The working temperature is high, and the working temperature is 300-350 degrees. When the battery is working, it needs certain heat preservation and slow start-up.
2. The price is expensive, 10,000 yuan per degree.
3. Poor safety.

Ⅶ. Flow Batteries (Vanadium Batteries)
1. Safe and deep discharge;
2. Large scale and unlimited size of storage tanks;
3. There is a high charge-discharge rate.
4. Long life and high reliability;
5. No emission and low noise.
6. Charge-discharge switching is fast, only 0.02 seconds.
7. Site selection is not subject to geographical restrictions.
1. Cross-contamination of positive and negative electrolytes;
2. Some of them need expensive ion exchange membranes.
3. The volume of the two solutions is large and the specific energy is low.
4. Energy conversion efficiency is not high.

VIII. Lithium Air Batteries
Fatal Defects:
Lithium oxide (Li2O), a solid reaction product, will accumulate at the positive electrode, thus blocking the contact between the electrolyte and air, leading to the cessation of discharge. Scientists believe that the performance of lithium-air batteries is 10 times that of lithium-ion batteries, which can provide the same energy as gasoline. Lithium air batteries absorb oxygen from the air to charge, so they can be smaller and lighter. Many laboratories around the world are studying this technology, but if there is no major breakthrough, it may take another 10 years to achieve commercial use.

Ⅸ. Lithium-sulfur batteries
(Lithium-sulfur batteries are a promising high-capacity energy storage system)
1. High energy density, theoretical energy density can reach 2600Wh/kg.
2. The cost of raw materials is low.
3. Low energy consumption;
4. Low toxicity.
Although the research of lithium-sulfur batteries has gone through several decades, and many achievements have been achieved in the past 10 years, there is still a long way to go from practical application.




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